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Full text of "The History Of Western Education"

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things and thus completes the work of education. So in the
subjects of instruction unity, individuality and diversity are all
included. " In religion the aspiration of the soul, which is
directed towards unity in man, prevails and seeks the fruition of
its hopes. In the contemplation of nature and mathematics,
the aspiration of intellect, which refers to individuality in man,
prevails and seeks certainty. In language, the demand of reason,
which refers to diversity and unites all diversity, prevails and
seeks satisfaction."* But these groups of subjects are not separate
and independent. They constitute an integral unity and must
each and all be taught. To the three main groups, Froebel adds
Arts, on the ground that there is need for an expression of the soul
"T3T outward form other than the rational expression of it through
language. For this reason he includes singing, drawing, painting
and modelling in the school curriculum.

The most notable application of the principles expounded in
the Education of Man was the system of early education in the
Kindergarten which Froebel spent fifteen years in working out.
The period of childhood he had specially in mind was that
stretching from birth till the age of six or so, when the child is
dominated by impulses and emotions rather than by definite
thoughts. This was the period to which Pestalozzi had directed
the closest attention and care. But though Froebel has ob-
viously learned .much from his master and has a good deal in
common with him, the methods he employs with young chil-
dren are very different from Pestalozzi's. The main difference
is that he avoids the analytical reduction of experience to elements,
and makes a beginning of education with whole interests and not
with mere fragments. The central feature of the scheme is
systematic activity, which presents itself to the child as play. The
system, it is true, is not a rigid one. Froebel is willing to see the
child exercise himself in any way that promises to help his develop-
ment; but for the sake of continuity, Certain occupations and
games which increase in complexity as the child advances in years
form the core of the Kindergarten life. These fall into three
groups : (a) The Gifts and Occupations, intended to familiarize
die child with inanimate things* (V) Gardening and the care of
pets, to produce sympathy with plants and animals, (c) Games
and Songs, like those given in the Mother and Nursery Songs,
* Education cf JVfaxz, Hailmana'fi translation, p. 208*